The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis. Inflammation is the body's natural response to injury. The warning signs that inflammation presents are redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
The acromioclavicular joint is part of the shoulder joint. It is formed by the union of the acromion, a bony process of the shoulder blade, and the outer end of the collar bone or clavicle. The joint is lined by cartilage that gradually wears with age as well as with repeated overhead or shoulder level activities such as basketball. The condition is referred to as AC arthritis or acromioclavicular arthritis.
The term SLAP (superior –labrum anterior-posterior) lesion or SLAP tear refers to an injury of the superior labrum of the shoulder.
Shoulder impingement is the inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder joint. It is one of the most common causes of pain in the shoulder. Shoulder impingement is also called swimmer’s shoulder, tennis shoulder or rotator cuff tendinitis.
Traumatic injury to the shoulder or overuse of the shoulder (throwing, weightlifting) may cause the labrum to tear. In addition, aging may weaken the labrum leading to injury.
Sports that involve overhead movements and repeated use of the shoulder at your workplace may lead to sliding of the upper arm bone from the glenoid. The dislocation might be a partial dislocation (subluxation) or a complete dislocation causing pain and shoulder joint instability. The shoulder joint often dislocates in the forward direction (anterior instability), and sometimes in the backward or downward direction.
A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture.
Shoulder injuries most commonly occur in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms.
Little league shoulder is an injury to the growth plate of the upper arm bone at the shoulder joint of children. It is an overuse injury caused by repeated pitching or throwing, especially in children between the ages of 10 to 15 years. This condition is mostly seen in baseball pitchers, but children in other sports who use improper throwing action are also at risk.
The shoulder is a highly mobile ball and socket joint. The ball of the upper arm bone (humerus) is held in place at the socket (glenoid) of the shoulder blade (scapula) by a group of ligaments. A partial dislocation of the shoulder joint is termed as a subluxation. This means the ball has partially moved out of the glenoid as opposed to a dislocation, where the ball completely moves out of the glenoid.
The rotator cuff consists of a group of tendons and muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. These tendons allow a wide range of movement of the shoulder joint across multiple planes. Irritation or injury to these tendons can result in rotator cuff pain.
The break or fracture of the clavicle (collarbone) is a common sports injury associated with contact sports such as football and martial arts, as well as impact sports such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder that may occur during a fall on an outstretched arm or a motor vehicle accident may cause the clavicle bone to break.
Fractures of the glenoid are rare but can occur due to major trauma or during high-energy sports activities.
The humerus is the bone that forms the upper arm. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint and with the lower arm bones – the ulna and radius – to form the elbow joint. The proximal humerus is the upper end of the arm bone that forms the shoulder joint. The humerus is broadly divided into the head, neck and shaft region. Just below the head are two processes called the greater and lesser tubercles, which form the sites of attachment for the rotator cuff muscles.
Shoulder injuries in baseball players are usually associated with pitching. While this overhand throwing activity can produce great speed and distance for the ball, when performed repeatedly, can place a lot of stress on the shoulder. While pitching, the arm is thrown outward and backward to generate speed. This action forces the head of the humerus forward, stressing the surrounding ligaments and tendons. These stresses can lead to injuries, causing pain and inflammation.
The biceps muscle is located in the front side of your upper arm and functions to help you bend and rotate your arm.
Internal shoulder impingement can be described as a pathological condition resulting from repetitive impingement of the internal surface of the rotator cuff by the bones at the back of the glenohumeral joint.
Throwing injuries of the shoulder are injuries sustained as a result of trauma by athletes during sports activities that involve repetitive overhand motions of the arm as in baseball, American football, volleyball, rugby, tennis, track and field events, etc. Throwing injuries are mostly seen in the shoulder and elbow and can occur due to improper techniques, training errors, muscle imbalance, and overuse of muscles.
The sternoclavicular joint is the joint between the breastbone (sternum) and the collar bone (clavicle). The SC joint is one of the 4 joints that complete the shoulder and is the only joint that links the arm to the body. Like any other joints, the SC joint is covered by articular cartilage that helps the bones slide effortlessly against each other during arm and shoulder movement. Tough connective tissue known as ligaments surrounds the SC joint providing stability and strength.
Shoulder instability results when the humeral head is not held firmly within the glenoid cavity and may lead to a dislocation. Tearing, stretching or peeling of the labrum can result in shoulder instability. It can also occur with defects of the shoulder capsule and ligaments.
The biceps muscle is the muscle of the upper arm which is necessary for the movement of the shoulder and elbow. It is made of a ‘short head’ and a ‘long head’ which function together. These are connected to the shoulder joint by two tendons called the proximal biceps tendons and to the elbow joint by a single distal biceps tendon.
Your biceps muscle has two heads, a long head, and a short head, which are both attached to the shoulder. The long head of the biceps tendon is a tough band of connective fibrous tissue that attaches the long head of the biceps to the top of the shoulder socket.
Instability may be described by the direction in which the humerus is subluxated or dislocated from the glenoid. When it occurs in several directions it is referred to as multidirectional instability.
A tear in the rotator cuff can cause pain and disability. It can occur from degeneration of the rotator cuff due to overuse or from a sudden injury. Massive rotator cuff tears involve tears in two complete tendons of the rotator cuff. A tear of more than 5 cm is described as massive. A massive tear may be associated with degeneration and retraction of the tendon and can be difficult to repair if treatment is delayed.
A periprosthetic shoulder joint infection is a very rare, but devastating complication of shoulder replacement surgery characterized by infection of the tissues surrounding your shoulder prosthesis.
A periprosthetic shoulder fracture is a fracture that occurs in the bone adjacent to a shoulder prosthesis.
Your shoulder consists of a ‘ball-and-socket joint’. The humerus (upper arm bone) has a rounded head (ball) that is attached to the glenoid cavity (socket) in the shoulder blade. Certain injuries can cause dislocation of the joint and damage to the humeral head. Damage to the back and outer portion of the humeral head can result in a defect called a Hill-Sachs lesion. A Hill-Sachs lesion usually occurs when the humeral head dislocates towards the front of the joint.